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Why is America Failing in Afghanistan?

- DR. Abdul-Qayum Mohmand

Analysis of “CIA World Factbook” (1981-2012): Dimensions of anti-Pashtun Conspirac

Afghan Fury at Planned Pakistan Pact
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Obama’s troop increase for Afghan war was misdirected
Afghan security vacuum feared along "gateway to Kabul"
Objections to U.S. Troops Intensify in Afghanistan
The Great Afghan corruption scam
War zone killing: Vets feel 'alone' in their guilt
Was Osama for Real? And Was He Killed in 2001?
Afghanistan withdrawal: The risks of retreat
The Real Reason the US Invaded Afghanistan
The Definition of a Quagmire
Huge Uncertainty' in Afghanistan
Controversial ID Cards Expose Ethnic Divisions In Afghanistan
Afghanistan: The Final Curtain Call for NATO?
Afghanistan After 9/11: A Mission Unaccomplished
Why Should Taliban and Other Insurgents Refrain from Negotiation With the US & NATO? By: Dr Mohammed Daud Miraki, MA, MA, Ph

Exclusive: Karzai family looks to extend boss rule in Afghanistan.

Intrigue in Karzai Family as an Afghan Era Closes
For Afghans, Two Outrages, Two Different Reactions
Double blow to west’s Afghan strategy
Does the Taliban need a diplomatic voice?
Afghanistan: Lessons in War and Peace-building for US
Afghan women opposed by former allies
Q+A - Haqqani: From White House guest to staunch U.S. enemy
Haqqanis: Growth of a militant network -BBC
Afghanistan shelves plans for ambassador accused of fraud
Afghan nominated as ambassador to Britain was accused in US of fraud
U.S. deal with Taliban breaks down
The Loneliness of the Afghan President: Karzai on His Own

NATO's Third Alternative in Afghanistan

On the Road: Interview with Commander Abdul Haq:- The Tragedy of Abdul Haq
When the Lion Roared: How Abdul Haq Almost Saved Afghanistan
Pakistan’s ISI: Undermining Afghan self-determination since 1948
Mineral Wealth of Afghanistan, Military Occupation, Corruption and the Rights of the Afghan People
M. Siddieq Noorzoy
Why Isn’t the UN Investigating and Prosecuting the U.S. and NATO for War Crimes Committed in Afghanistan?
Corruption and Warlordism:
Abdul Basir Stanikzai
In Afghanistan, U.S. contracts aren’t crystal balls, but they come close
The great Afghan carve-up
Anatomy of an Afghan war tragedy
Terry Jones Actually Burns a Qur’an and No One Notices
Q+A-Are Afghan forces ready to take over security?
Guantánamo Bay files rewrite the story of Osama bin Laden's Tora Bora escape
Winning Afghan hearts, minds with explosives
Afghanistan’s Mercenaries
Who is winning Afghanistan war? U.S. officials increasingly disagree
Afghanistan: The Trouble With The Transition
From the Archives: In Quest of a ‘Greater Tajikistan’
The 1980s mujahideen, the Taliban and the shifting idea of jihad
Afghanistan's Karzai complains about interference
Karzai, US ambassador at odds over private security

Karzai Tells Washington Post U.S. Should Reduce Afghan Operation Intensity

Excerpts from Afghan President Hamid Karzai's interview with The Washington Post
What the Afghans Want
New US approach to Afghanistan insurgency: Vindication for Pakistan?
Putting Some Fight Into Our Friends
Afghans 'abused at secret prison
Why We Won’t Leave Afghanistan or Iraq
Indo-Pakistan proxy war heats up in Afghanistan
Canada’s elite commandos and the invasion of Afghanistan
U.S. retreat from Afghan valley marks recognition of blunder
Five myths about the war in Afghanistan
Marine who resigned over ‘conscience’ speaks at MU
The Afghan media may have grown since Taliban rule ended, but not so press freedoms
Mystery holes and angry ants: another Afghan day
Kabul Bank's Sherkhan Farnood feeds crony capitalism in Afghanistan
Marjah War
Operation Moshtarak: Which way the war in Afghanistan?
Q&A: Why Marjah, why now?
In Jalalabad, hope is fading
Seeking reconciliation, US units meet remote Afghanistan tribes
Once Again, Get the Hell Out! "Ending the War in Afghanistan"
Blackwater Kept a Prostitute on the Payroll in Afghanistan; Fraudulently Billed American Tax Payers
Wild West Motif Lightens US Mood at Afghan Bas
In southern Afghanistan, even the small gains get noticed
 Afghanistan war: US tries to undercut Taliban at tribal level
 Soviet lessons from Afghanistan
Are actions of 'super-tribe' an Afghan tipping point
Taliban: Terrorist or not? Not always easy to say
Q&A: Who else could help in Afghanistan?
Vietnam Replay on Afghan 'Defectors'
Washington's Refusal to Talk about Drone Strikes in Pakistan Meets Growing Opposition
Afghanistan summit: Why is the US backing talks with the Taliban?
Taliban's leadership council runs Afghan war from Pakistan
Why buy the Taliban?
2 Afghanistan conferences: No solutions
An Alternative to Endless War - Negotiating an Afghan Agreement?
Do the Taliban represent the Pashtuns?
Afghanistan asks ex-presidential contender to tackle corruption

Tehran Sets Conditions For Attending London Conference On Afghanista

Pakistan says reaches out to Afghan Taliban
Taking It to the Taliban
The Afghan Taliban's top leaders
How significant is Mullah Baradar's arrest?
Secret Joint Raid Captures Taliban’s Top Commander
What's the Quetta Shura Taliban and why does it matter?
What's behind latest Taliban attack on Kabul? See Images of the Attack By WSJ

Pakistan Version of Islam and Taliban ?????
Lahore fashion week takes on Talibanization in Pakistan

Loyalties of Those Killed in Afghan Raid Remain Unclear

After Attack, Afghans Question Motives or See Conspiracies
Gates: Taliban part of Afghan ‘political fabric’

IG: Afghan power-plant project ill-conceived, mismanaged

Taliban intensifies Afghan PR campaign

Taliban Overhaul Their Image in Bid to Win Allies
Karzai plans to woo Taliban with 'land, work and pensions'
Peace scheme mooted for Taliban
Bombs and baksheesh
But By All Means, Continue the Happy Talk on the Afghanistan War
Karzai Closing in on Taliban Reconciliation Plan
Last Exit Kabul
How To Get Out Without Forsaking Afghanistan's Stability
Afghan Recovery Report: Taleban Buying Guns From Former Warlords

'Jesus Guns': Two More Countries Rethink Using Weapons with Secret Bible References

Gun bible quotes 'inappropriate'
Text of Joint declaration of Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan trilateral meeting
Garmsir Protest Shows Taleban Reach
Rugged North Waziristan harbors US enemies
The Arrogance of Empire, Detailed ( The Untold Story of Afghanistan )
Appointment of Afghan counter narcotics chief dismays British officials
In Afghanistan attack, CIA fell victim to series of miscalculations about informant
Rebuilding Afghanistan: Will government take hold in this post-Taliban town?
Rare bird discovered in Afghan mountains
Blackwater, now called Xe, in running for work in Afghanistan despite legal woes
How Soviet troops stormed Kabul palace
Afghan children 'die in fighting'
Afghanistan war: Russian vets look back on their experience
U.N. Officials Say American Offered Plan to Replace Karzai 
Learning From the Soviets
U.S. faults Afghan corruption body's independence
Intensify fight against corruption, says Afghan meeting
Afghan ministers cleared of charges
Drone aircraft in a stepped-up war in Afghanistan and Pakistan
U.S. Air Force Confirms 'Beast of Kandahar' Secret Stealth Drone Plane
Kissinger's fantasy is Obama's realit
Taliban shadow officials offer concrete alternative
Talking with the Taliban
20. Ashraf Ghani and Clare Lockhart
'Yes, there was torture and people were certainly beaten': Afghan warden
Why we should leave Afghanistan
US pours millions into anti-Taliban militias in Afghanistan
Pakistan to US: Don't surge in Afghanistan, talk to Taliban
A Plan C for Afghanistan
Finding decent cabinet is Karzai's big challenge
A way to get around Karzai in Afghanistan
Corruption fight boosted by 'Afghan FBI'
US demands Afghan 'bribery court'
Afghanistan plans court for corrupt ministers
The man leading Afghanistan's anti-corruption fight
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Gates blocks abuse photos release
New U.S. Afghan prison unveiled, rights groups wary
War in Afghanistan: Not in our name
How the US Funds the Taliban
Afghan gov't says UN representative out of line
Cabinet of Warlords
Afghanistan and the lessons of history
Clinton says Karzai ‘must do better’
Recognizing the Limits of American Power in Afghanistan
After Afghanistan election, governors seek distance from 'illegal' Karzai
Karzai was hellbent on victory. Afghans will pay the price
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Does the U.S. still have a vital interest in Afghanistan?
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Patrick Witty & Tyler Hicks
The New York Times

Afghanistan Cross Road CNN

The last frontier

Bruce Richardson


CIA: Buying peace in Afghanistan?

With Bags of Cash, C.I.A. Seeks Influence in Afghanistan
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Getting Out of Afghanistan: Part 2
William R. Polk
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Presenter: Secretary of Defense Leon E. Panetta and Daoud Sultanzoy, Tolo Television
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Afghanistan Chronicles
Arduous path to Afghan 'end-game'
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A comment on the recent events of student poisoning in Afghanistan
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Afghanistan’s Peace Talks Hit Brick Wall
King Karzai
A Federal System of Government is Not Suitable for Afghanistan
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For Karzai, Stumbles On Road To Election
Cruel human toll of fight to win Afghan peace
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Troops 'fighting for UK's future'
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Afghans still skeptical about Obama
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Q+A: Who are the Pakistani Taliban insurgents?
Afghanistan Past & Present
Bombs for Pashtoons and Dollars for Punjab
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The Afghan '80s are back
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A proud moment for Afghanistan
Rival to Karzai Gains Strength in Afghan Presidential Election
Afghan presidential candidate withdraws in Karzai's favor
America and international law
Hamid Karzai pulls out of historic TV debate just hours before broadcast
Karzai says no to first Afghanpresidential debate
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Karzai opponents hope to beat him in second round
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For Karzai, Stumbles On Road To Election
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Cruel human toll of fight to win Afghan peace
Karzai’s gimmick
Well-known traffickers set free ahead of election
US president sets Afghan target
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Why the Pentagon Axed Its Afghanistan Warlord
Earn our trust or go, Afghans tell GIs
The Irresistible Illusion
Running Out Of Options, Afghans Pay For an Exit
We've lost sight of our goal in Afghanistan
$2,000 for a dead Afghan Child, $100,000 for Any American Who Died Killing it
The strategy is sound – but success is not assured
Operation in Taliban hotbed a test for revamped U.S. strategy
Covering Crucial Afghanistan Operation
Pentagon Seeks to Overhaul Prisons in Afghanistan
Echoes of Vietnam
A Response To General Dostum
Obama orders probe of killings in Afghanistan
Obama admin: No grounds to probe Afghan war crimes
US president sets Afghan target
U.S. Inaction Seen After Taliban P.O.W.’s Died
Afghanistan's Election Challenges
The Irresistible Illusion
Earn our trust or go, Afghans tell GIs
Running Out Of Options, Afghans Pay For an Exit

We've lost sight of our goal in Afghanistan

The strategy is sound – but success is not assured
Stakes High in Afghanistan Ahead of August Elections
$2,000 for a dead Afghan Child, $100,000 for Any American Who Died Killing it
Ex-detainees allege Bagram abuse
Petraeus Is a Failure -- Why Do We Pretend He's Been a Success?
Fierce Battles and High Casualties on the Frontlines of Afghanistan
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Outside View: Four revolutions
Pakistan's Plans for New Fight Stir Concern
France: liberty, equality, and fraternity – but no burqas





Echoes of Vietnam

Even the Coalition commanders in Afghanistan wonder if they can win the war
Will history repeat itself in Afghanistan?

British military intervention in Afghanistan has a chequered history, making it easy to conclude that British forces will fail again


Political Assassination…Resolution by other Means  
By: Bruce G. Richardson   Source:  

Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power-politics, dating back as far as recorded history.

Osama bin Laden: The execution-style killing of Osama bin Laden on May 1st in Abbottabad, Pakistan has raised objections and outrage among acclaimed jurisprudents worldwide. Referring to the killing as “murder” and or “political-assassination,” debate among jurists has fueled the fires of criticism against the Obama Administration’s extra-legal foreign policies. To deflect international criticism, and to preserve the American people’s support for a seemingly senseless and endless war, the Obama Administration and their accomplices in the media have embarked on an amorphous game of legal-semantics. Assassination proscribed under U.S. and international law, is now cast in terms of “targeted killing” in administration-legalese. “Targeted killing” is the more recently- coined euphemism for sanctioned murder, and as was “collateral damage”, devised to blunt criticism for the unwarranted and indiscriminate slaughter of civilians by the U.S. military.

Administration lawyers using highly-questionable legal interpretations that as yet have not been adjudicated in a court of law, as with the latent controversy over torture, have taken the position that so-called “targeted killing” is lawful under national and international statutes as a tool of self-defense in the war on terror. This, a frequent tactic of Israel and the U.S. raises complex questions and leads to contentious disputes, as to the legal and moral basis for its application. Would history and the rule of law have not been better served with a public trial of Osama bin Laden in a court of law?

Benazir Bhutto: An assassin’s bullet took the life of former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto on December 27, 2007. On September 28, 2009, General Mirza Aslam Beg, Pakistan’s former Army Chief of Staff said that CIA contractor Blackwater was directly involved in the assassination of former Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. He said that Pakistan’s President Musharraf had given Blackwater permission to carry out terrorist operations in the cities of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. In an Al-Jazeera TV interview the general said that the U.S. killed Benazir Bhutto when she violated an agreement she had with the CIA… to not return to Pakistan. General Beg was Army Chief of Staff during Bhutto’s first administration. See: (Washington Post, 1/18/08 and Al-Jazeera, 9/28/2009). A highly controversial figure, the Prime Minister was thought a corrupt official and was known to traffic in stolen antiquities. Some of Afghanistan’s most rare and historic treasures were in her possession. Among her collection of rare antiquities were the world-renowned “Begrami-Ivories”, but to the chagrin of Afghan antiquities curatorial activists, without benefit of legal title. The Begrami-Ivories are believed to date from the Kushan period.

Notwithstanding the fact that Baitullah Mehsud is the alleged shooter, Pakistan’s Foreign Minister, M. Shah Mahmoud has asked for a full investigation of CIA complicity by the United Nations. A recent poll of the people of Pakistan indicated that a majority believe President Musharraf ordered the assassination of Benazir Bhutto at the behest of the CIA. (See: South Asian Analysis Group, #287, Pakistan’s ISI, B. Rahman, 2001, and Dawn, Yousaf Nazar, 1/31/2008).

Ahmad Shah Massoud: Assassinated on September 9, 2001. Well-informed political commentators have long held that the assassination of Ahmad Shah Massoud at the hands of Tunisian/al-Qaeda operatives was but self-serving propaganda, a tactic of the information-war.  Representatives of the Northern Alliance lost no time in accusing the Taliban and al-Qaeda of the incident. But as the recent Oslo terrorist attack clearly demonstrates, there are those who seize what they view as an opportunity to accuse their enemies for political advantage. The Western media and President Obama for example…immediately accused Muslims for the carnage that turned out to be by the hand of a deranged right-wing Christian fundamentalist.

Truth however, in time, is generally revealed. In the years following Massoud’s death, Belgian and French investigators arrested various individuals for the complicity in the assassination. However, the European investigators did not address critical questions about how the operation played out on the ground. How did two al-Qaeda operatives gain proximity to Massoud, bypassing the rigid screening process routinely employed and required to reach Massoud?  How did they get the explosives through various layers of physical screening and bring them into Massoud’s presence? The assassin’s cameras were allegedly “stuffed with explosives.” Yet it has recently been shown that Massoud’s security apparatus was in possession of the latest incarnation of high-tech “explosives sniffers,” a gift from his CIA handlers, technology that would with certainty reveal [any] presence of explosives. We know too that Rasul Sayyaf facilitated the entrance of the assassins into Northern Afghanistan and that Mohammad Qasim Fahim failed to vet the foreign visitors as was his responsibility. So, it would seem that two imposters, fake journalists from Tunisia, posing as Moroccans with Belgian passports, along with their equipment , including the cameras they proposed to use to record their interview with Massoud…were never physically screened.

A lone assassin survived the blast that took the life of Ahmad Shah Massoud and one of the alleged assassins, but curiously…was shot while allegedly trying to escape… conveniently taking his secrets along with himself to his grave… forever silenced.

 As heretofore reported; in June of 2007, Ambassador Massoud Khalili, as sole survivor,  told the (Indian Press) that he observed a “bright streak of light”, a telltale, recognized- signature generated by super-heated exhaust gasses emanating from a rocket’s motor, just moments before the explosion. (See: Afghanistan, a Search for Truth, Bruce G. Richardson, 2009, p.47 and Jane’s Defense Weekly, Missile Signatures, 11/27/01).
It has been therefore concluded in many circles that Massoud’s death was advanced by the personal and political ambitions of key figures in the Northern Alliance. High-profile figures such as the wily Dr. Abdullah Abdullah, so adored by the Western media, and “Marshall” Fahim, now serving as President Hamid Karzai’s First Vice President, both of whom now well-positioned for upward political mobility as a result of Massoud’s assassination.  In addition, other casus belli are present: a long-standing and vitriolic disputation surrounding vast financial holdings in real-estate and bank accounts have been a major bone of contention between Ahmad Shah Massoud and others of Jamiat’s-hierarchy. (See: The Real Winner of Afghanistan’s Election, Foreign Policy, H.M. Leverett, Afghan Post, 2008).

Dr. Abdur Rahman: Assassinated on February 14, 2002. In an article entitled: The Assassination of the Man with Two Names, Bruce G. Richardson, (See: DAWAT, English Edition and Afghan/German Online, Pashto edition: translation by Rahmat Arya, July, 2011),and according to Abdul  Hai Warshan, a close friend of Massoud, “the motive behind his assassination was linked to the fact that Dr. Abdur Rahman was opening up and revealing details of Ahmad Shah Massoud’s past contacts with the KGB, India, Iran, and other intelligence agencies. He did not support Massoud in his war against the Taliban and was opposed to the pro-Russia policies of Shura-i-Nizar.” (See: War without end, Behroz Khan, Newsline, March, 2002).

Relatives of the slain minister believe that Muhamad Younis Qanooni, Muhammad Qasim Fahim. And Dr. Abdullah, Abdullah were responsible for his death in order to silence his criticism and expose over their respective participation in and collaboration with the Soviets, and as well, with India and Russia. (See: Afghanistan, a Search for Truth, Bruce G. Richardson, 2009, p.104).
In addition to previously cited sources, S. Frederick Starr, chairman of the Central Asia Institute at the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at John Hopkins University and Martin Strmecki, President of the Roosevelt Foundation, wrote in the (February 26, 2002 edition of the Wall Street Journal under the title: Time to Ditch the Northern Alliance), “that it was the Northern Alliance themselves that successfully engineered the assassination of the slain Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism.”

War on Drugs: From American War Machine, Former diplomat, internationally acclaimed political scientist and Professor Emeritus of English at the University of California, Berkeley, authorPeter Dale Scott writes:
“Beginning with Thailand in the 1950s, Americans have become inured to the CIA’s alliances with known terrorists, drug traffickers (and their bankers) to install and sustain right-wing governments, The modus- operandi  has repeated itself in Laos, Vietnam, Italy, Mexico, Thailand, Nigeria, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, Honduras, Turkey, Pakistan and now Afghanistan. The relationship of the U.S. intelligence operations and agencies to the global drug traffic, and to other criminal networks deserves greater attention in the debate over the U.S. presence in Afghanistan. After World War II, the United States, along with Britain and France, recurrently used both drug networks and terrorist groups as assets or proxies in the Cold War. By backing these groups, the great powers greatly increased the power and scope of both the drug traffic and terrorist groups. As a result, in the long run, they contributed to powerful forces that weakened the rule of law internationally and domestically.”

America’s wars on terror and drugs consist of both an amorphous structure and hypocritical DNA. When Obama visited Afghanistan in 2008, Gul Agha Shirzai was the first Afghan leader he met. The (London Observer reported on July 21, 2002), that in order to secure his acceptance of the new Karzai Government, Gul Agha Shirzai, along with other drug and warlords, had been “bought off” with millions of dollars in deals brokered by U.S. and British Intelligence. (See: American War Machine, Deep politics, the CIA Global Drug Connections and the Road to Afghanistan, Peter Dale Scott, 2010).

Unbeknownst to many Americans, and as a casualty of the information-war, the Taliban had virtually eliminated the production of opiates and heroin manufacture. Yet with the homogenized rendering of nightly newscasts across America, both the Bush and Obama Administrations alleged that the principal source of funding for the Taliban and al-Qaeda in Afghanistan was derived from drug trafficking. An obvious dalliance with the truth with the intent to further demonize and de-legitimize the Taliban and others who resist the American occupation in the eyes of the American public, and to justify a war against a country and a people that cannot by any measure or reasonable standard be justified… and furthermore; a country and a people that had not [ever] threatened nor harmed the interests and or security of the U.S.

In addition to and in spite of America’s murky anti-terrorist and drug-DNA, manifest with the recruitment of known war criminals such as Rashid Dostum and others of the nefarious Northern Alliance, who were recruited and bribed with $500,000 in “stacks of newly-printed $100-dollar bills”, a first installment of a multitude of cash incentives by CIA operatives to further America’s grip on Afghanistan. And in recognition of the ancient proverbs: “don’t do what I do, do what I say, and the end justifies the means”, contrary to their public stance and rhetoric, America, throughout its history, has allied itself with the dregs of society, i.e., war criminals, drug lords, communists and terrorists. (See: First In, An Insider’s account of how the CIA Spearheaded the War on Terror in Afghanistan, Gary C. Schroen, 2005, p. 92, and Ghost Wars, Steve Coll, 2004, pp. 467 and 494).

American officials, however, were cautious, concerned over the fact that the Northern Alliance engaged in “major drug trafficking”, and worried about the potential political fallout once the obvious hypocrisy incorporated in their statecraft bridged the public’s-information chasm, a chasm that exists between professed and actual government policies. Yet, in the final analysis, history attests that the Northern Alliance, allied with their co-ethnic proxy-mercenaries  from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, were utilized in a combat-support role (war crimes and drug trafficking notwithstanding) to provide both target coordinates of Taliban positions and troops to fight alongside American forces against the Taliban. (See: The Main Enemy, Milt Bearden, and James Risen, 2003 and American War Machine, and Deep Politics, the CIA Global Drug Connection, and the Road to Afghanistan, Peter Dale Scott, pp. 23,25, 236, 2010).

Beneficiaries, real as opposed to imagined and or alleged from opium trafficking:

On November 21, 2005, Uzbek President Islam Karimov evicted the American military from their base of operations in Kush-Khanabad under a status-of-force codicil incorporated in the “tenant” basing agreement. The airbase had been used by the U.S. for operations against Afghanistan. The reason given for the expulsion was that American aircraft bound for Europe and other destinations were known to be laden with opium. Sources speculate that this move by Karimov, under extraordinary pressure from Russia, itself worried about the burgeoning illicit drug activity in their own backyard, and the close proximity of NATO forces, may have also been in retaliation for the U.S. calling for a UN special investigation into the Karimov’s Administration’s brutal response to demonstrators by their security forces during the uprising in Andijan. (See: Global Research, 11/21/05).

Witnesses have revealed that American military aircraft flying out from Bagram Airbase in Afghanistan have as well been observed transporting drugs. Author of (American War Machine), Peter Dale Scott, and Alfred W. McCoy, author of (The Politics of Heroin, CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, 2003), provide a detailed listing of major American banks that have made billions by laundering drug profits from opium originating in Afghanistan. In addition, allegations have surfaced that the U.S. is financing its war in Afghanistan with drug profits.  From a former Russian general with Cold War experience in Afghanistan:

“Americans themselves admit that drugs are often transported out of Afghanistan on American planes. Drug trafficking in Afghanistan brings them about 50 billion a year…which fully covers the expenses tied to keeping its troops there. Essentially, they are not going to interfere and stop production of drugs.” (See: Afghan Drug Trafficking Brings U.S. $50 Billion a Year, General Mahmut Gareev, Russia Today, 8/20/09).

The blatant hypocrisy extant with America’s wars of terror and drugs are profoundly manifest with the widely published recruitment of known war criminals, and with irrefutable photographic evidence as published on the cover of Peter Dale Scott’s book, American War Machine; a provocative photograph depicts a contingent of U.S. Marinesengaged inguarding, as opposed to destroying, a poppy field in Afghanistan.



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