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Why is America Failing in Afghanistan?

- DR. Abdul-Qayum Mohmand

CNN International News with Christiane Amanpour

Analysis of “CIA World Factbook” (1981-2012): Dimensions of anti-Pashtun Conspirac
US forces in Afghanistan nearly destroyed vital airfield
We Are Those Two Afghan Children, Killed by NATO While Tending Their Cattle
Former Islamist Warlord Vies for Afghan Presidency
Pakistan releases top Afghan Taliban prisoner in effort to boost peace process
Losing the War in Afghanistan
Obama’s troop increase for Afghan war was misdirected
Afghan security vacuum feared along "gateway to Kabul"
Objections to U.S. Troops Intensify in Afghanistan
The Great Afghan corruption scam
War zone killing: Vets feel 'alone' in their guilt
Was Osama for Real? And Was He Killed in 2001?
Afghanistan withdrawal: The risks of retreat
The Real Reason the US Invaded Afghanistan
The Definition of a Quagmire
Huge Uncertainty' in Afghanistan
Controversial ID Cards Expose Ethnic Divisions In Afghanistan
Afghanistan: The Final Curtain Call for NATO?
Afghanistan After 9/11: A Mission Unaccomplished
Why Should Taliban and Other Insurgents Refrain from Negotiation With the US & NATO? By: Dr Mohammed Daud Miraki, MA, MA, Ph

Exclusive: Karzai family looks to extend boss rule in Afghanistan.

Intrigue in Karzai Family as an Afghan Era Closes
For Afghans, Two Outrages, Two Different Reactions
Double blow to west’s Afghan strategy
Does the Taliban need a diplomatic voice?
Afghanistan: Lessons in War and Peace-building for US
Afghan women opposed by former allies
Q+A - Haqqani: From White House guest to staunch U.S. enemy
Haqqanis: Growth of a militant network -BBC
Afghanistan shelves plans for ambassador accused of fraud
Afghan nominated as ambassador to Britain was accused in US of fraud
U.S. deal with Taliban breaks down
The Loneliness of the Afghan President: Karzai on His Own

NATO's Third Alternative in Afghanistan

On the Road: Interview with Commander Abdul Haq:- The Tragedy of Abdul Haq
When the Lion Roared: How Abdul Haq Almost Saved Afghanistan
AFGHAN WARRIOR: THE LIFE & DEATH OF ABDUL HAQ
Pakistan’s ISI: Undermining Afghan self-determination since 1948
Mineral Wealth of Afghanistan, Military Occupation, Corruption and the Rights of the Afghan People
M. Siddieq Noorzoy
Why Isn’t the UN Investigating and Prosecuting the U.S. and NATO for War Crimes Committed in Afghanistan?
Corruption and Warlordism:
Abdul Basir Stanikzai
In Afghanistan, U.S. contracts aren’t crystal balls, but they come close
The great Afghan carve-up
Anatomy of an Afghan war tragedy
Terry Jones Actually Burns a Qur’an and No One Notices
Q+A-Are Afghan forces ready to take over security?
Guantánamo Bay files rewrite the story of Osama bin Laden's Tora Bora escape
Winning Afghan hearts, minds with explosives
Afghanistan’s Mercenaries
KABUL’S HORIZONS
Who is winning Afghanistan war? U.S. officials increasingly disagree
Afghanistan: The Trouble With The Transition
From the Archives: In Quest of a ‘Greater Tajikistan’
The 1980s mujahideen, the Taliban and the shifting idea of jihad
Afghanistan's Karzai complains about interference
Karzai, US ambassador at odds over private security

Karzai Tells Washington Post U.S. Should Reduce Afghan Operation Intensity

Excerpts from Afghan President Hamid Karzai's interview with The Washington Post
What the Afghans Want
New US approach to Afghanistan insurgency: Vindication for Pakistan?
Putting Some Fight Into Our Friends
Afghans 'abused at secret prison
Why We Won’t Leave Afghanistan or Iraq
Indo-Pakistan proxy war heats up in Afghanistan
Canada’s elite commandos and the invasion of Afghanistan
U.S. retreat from Afghan valley marks recognition of blunder
Five myths about the war in Afghanistan
Marine who resigned over ‘conscience’ speaks at MU
The Afghan media may have grown since Taliban rule ended, but not so press freedoms
Mystery holes and angry ants: another Afghan day
Kabul Bank's Sherkhan Farnood feeds crony capitalism in Afghanistan
Marjah War
Operation Moshtarak: Which way the war in Afghanistan?
Q&A: Why Marjah, why now?
In Jalalabad, hope is fading
Seeking reconciliation, US units meet remote Afghanistan tribes
Once Again, Get the Hell Out! "Ending the War in Afghanistan"
Blackwater Kept a Prostitute on the Payroll in Afghanistan; Fraudulently Billed American Tax Payers
Wild West Motif Lightens US Mood at Afghan Bas
In southern Afghanistan, even the small gains get noticed
 Afghanistan war: US tries to undercut Taliban at tribal level
 Soviet lessons from Afghanistan
Are actions of 'super-tribe' an Afghan tipping point
Taliban: Terrorist or not? Not always easy to say
Q&A: Who else could help in Afghanistan?
Vietnam Replay on Afghan 'Defectors'
Washington's Refusal to Talk about Drone Strikes in Pakistan Meets Growing Opposition
Afghanistan summit: Why is the US backing talks with the Taliban?
Taliban's leadership council runs Afghan war from Pakistan
Why buy the Taliban?
2 Afghanistan conferences: No solutions
An Alternative to Endless War - Negotiating an Afghan Agreement?
Do the Taliban represent the Pashtuns?
Afghanistan asks ex-presidential contender to tackle corruption

Tehran Sets Conditions For Attending London Conference On Afghanista

Pakistan says reaches out to Afghan Taliban
Taking It to the Taliban
The Afghan Taliban's top leaders
How significant is Mullah Baradar's arrest?
Secret Joint Raid Captures Taliban’s Top Commander
What's the Quetta Shura Taliban and why does it matter?
What's behind latest Taliban attack on Kabul? See Images of the Attack By WSJ

Pakistan Version of Islam and Taliban ?????
Lahore fashion week takes on Talibanization in Pakistan

Loyalties of Those Killed in Afghan Raid Remain Unclear

After Attack, Afghans Question Motives or See Conspiracies
Gates: Taliban part of Afghan ‘political fabric’

IG: Afghan power-plant project ill-conceived, mismanaged

Taliban intensifies Afghan PR campaign

Taliban Overhaul Their Image in Bid to Win Allies
Karzai plans to woo Taliban with 'land, work and pensions'
Peace scheme mooted for Taliban
Bombs and baksheesh
But By All Means, Continue the Happy Talk on the Afghanistan War
Karzai Closing in on Taliban Reconciliation Plan
Last Exit Kabul
How To Get Out Without Forsaking Afghanistan's Stability
Afghan Recovery Report: Taleban Buying Guns From Former Warlords

'Jesus Guns': Two More Countries Rethink Using Weapons with Secret Bible References

Gun bible quotes 'inappropriate'
Text of Joint declaration of Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan trilateral meeting
Garmsir Protest Shows Taleban Reach
Rugged North Waziristan harbors US enemies
The Arrogance of Empire, Detailed ( The Untold Story of Afghanistan )
Appointment of Afghan counter narcotics chief dismays British officials
In Afghanistan attack, CIA fell victim to series of miscalculations about informant
Rebuilding Afghanistan: Will government take hold in this post-Taliban town?
Rare bird discovered in Afghan mountains
Blackwater, now called Xe, in running for work in Afghanistan despite legal woes
How Soviet troops stormed Kabul palace
Afghan children 'die in fighting'
Afghanistan war: Russian vets look back on their experience
U.N. Officials Say American Offered Plan to Replace Karzai 
Learning From the Soviets
U.S. faults Afghan corruption body's independence
Intensify fight against corruption, says Afghan meeting
Afghan ministers cleared of charges
Drone aircraft in a stepped-up war in Afghanistan and Pakistan
U.S. Air Force Confirms 'Beast of Kandahar' Secret Stealth Drone Plane
Kissinger's fantasy is Obama's realit
Taliban shadow officials offer concrete alternative
Talking with the Taliban
20. Ashraf Ghani and Clare Lockhart
'Yes, there was torture and people were certainly beaten': Afghan warden
Why we should leave Afghanistan
US pours millions into anti-Taliban militias in Afghanistan
Pakistan to US: Don't surge in Afghanistan, talk to Taliban
A Plan C for Afghanistan
Finding decent cabinet is Karzai's big challenge
A way to get around Karzai in Afghanistan
Corruption fight boosted by 'Afghan FBI'
US demands Afghan 'bribery court'
Afghanistan plans court for corrupt ministers
The man leading Afghanistan's anti-corruption fight
Win hearts and minds in Afghanistan to win the war
Gates blocks abuse photos release
New U.S. Afghan prison unveiled, rights groups wary
War in Afghanistan: Not in our name
How the US Funds the Taliban
Afghan gov't says UN representative out of line
Cabinet of Warlords
Afghanistan and the lessons of history
Clinton says Karzai ‘must do better’
Recognizing the Limits of American Power in Afghanistan
After Afghanistan election, governors seek distance from 'illegal' Karzai
Karzai was hellbent on victory. Afghans will pay the price
Matthew Hoh: Please refute what I'm saying, we are stuck in the Afghan civil war
As US looks for exit in Afghanistan, China digs in
America's Top Diplomat Tells 'Nightline': 'Not Every Taliban Is al Qaeda'
Obama Can’t Make Russian Mistake in Afghanistan
10 Steps to Victory in Afghanistan
Will Obama change Afghan strategy?
Does the U.S. still have a vital interest in Afghanistan?
Pashtuns and Pakistani
The Afghan '80s are back
Pashtun peace prophet goes global
Afghan Road Builder's Dream Thwarted by Violence
A white elephant in Kabul
The Afghan Runoff: Will It Be a No-Show Election?

Ashraf Ghani- Afghanistan's Disputed Election Complicates U.S. Strategy

On Assignment: Into the Maw at Marja

Patrick Witty & Tyler Hicks
The New York Times


Afghanistan Cross Road CNN


The last frontier


Bruce Richardson
 

Articles

CIA: Buying peace in Afghanistan?

With Bags of Cash, C.I.A. Seeks Influence in Afghanistan
CIA Ghost Money: Karzai Confirms U.S. Gives Funds To Afghan National Security Team
What the CIA’s cash has bought for Afghanistan

Khalilzad: A Satan Whispering in the Hearts of Men
The Afghan trust deficitt
Will We Learn Anything from Afghanistan? Part 1
Getting Out of Afghanistan: Part 2
William R. Polk
General’s Defense on Afghan Scandal Ducks Key Evidence
Afghans want Taliban peace talks
Bombing Weddings in Afghanistan: It Couldn't Happen Here, It Does Happen There
Hekmatyar's never-ending Afghan war
Covert American Aid to the Afghan Resistance; A Top-Secret U.S. Foreign Policy Plot to Induce and Effect Soviet Military Intervention
Afghan brain drain fears as Karzai urges education reforms

US considers launching joint US-Afghan raids in Pakistan to hunt down militant groups

Real security in Afghanistan depends on people's basic needs being met
Intractable Afghan Graft Hampering U.S. Strategy
Former Taliban Officials Say U.S. Talks Started
Taliban ready for talks with US, not Karzai government
Emboldened Taliban Try to Sell Softer Image
Leaked NATO Report Shows Pakistan Support For Taliban
Insight: Few options for Afghan, U.S. leaders after Kandahar massacre
Presenter: Secretary of Defense Leon E. Panetta and Daoud Sultanzoy, Tolo Television
NATO’s measured exit plan in Afghanistan faces new obstacles
BFP Exclusive: Karzai Clan Attorney Threatens US Journalist, Uses Intimidation Tactics
Afghanistan Chronicles
Arduous path to Afghan 'end-game'
Fear in the classrooms: is the Taliban poisoning Afghanistan's schoolgirls?
A comment on the recent events of student poisoning in Afghanistan
Rape Case, in Public, Cites Abuse by Armed Groups in Afghanistan
Afghanistan’s Peace Talks Hit Brick Wall
THE ANATOMY OF US’S DEFEAT IN AFGHANISTAN
VOICES OF EMPIRE: FROM CIA’s CULTURAL GREAT GAME TO GLOBAL GREAT GAME TODAY
WHITE PAPER FOR THE PERMANENT PEACE IN AFGHANISTAN
King Karzai
A Federal System of Government is Not Suitable for Afghanistan
CHINA AMO DARYA OIL DEAL
Analysis: Where Afghan humanitarianism ends and development begins
U.S. Envoy: Kabulbank Was 'Vast Looting Scheme'
Speaking with the enemy: how US commanders fight the Taliban during the day and dine with them at night
Afghanistan: Operation Enduring Musery
How to Win Peace in Afghanistan
For Karzai, Stumbles On Road To Election
Cruel human toll of fight to win Afghan peace
Criticism of Afghan War Is on the Rise in Britain
Troops 'fighting for UK's future'
Operation in Taliban hotbed a test for revamped U.S. strategy
Covering Crucial Afghanistan Operation
Afghans still skeptical about Obama
US Defence Department struggling with public release of report on bombing in Afghanistan
Afghanistan on the Edge
Q+A: Who are the Pakistani Taliban insurgents?
Afghanistan Past & Present
Bombs for Pashtoons and Dollars for Punjab
Help! I'm being outgunned on K Street!
ANGELS CHASING DEMONS: “Jesus Killed Mohammad”!
U.S. tested 2 Afghan scenarios in war game
America's Top Diplomat Tells 'Nightline': 'Not Every Taliban Is al Qaeda'
Obama hearing range of views on Afghanistan
What Do Afghans Want? Withdrawal - But Not Too Fast - and A Negotiated Peace
Will Obama change Afghan strategy?
What Do Afghans Want? Withdrawal - But Not Too Fast - and A Negotiated Peace
Afghans tricked into U.S. trip, detained
In the Afghan War, Aim for the Middle
Obama pulled two ways in Afghanistan
Obama Can’t Make Russian Mistake in Afghanistan
10 Steps to Victory in Afghanistan
Gates: Mistake to set time line for Afghan withdrawal
Afghans question what democracy has done for them
High stakes in Afghan vote recount
Two Perspectives On Resolving The Afghan Postelection Crisis
Does the U.S. still have a vital interest in Afghanistan?
Pashtuns and Pakistanis
The Afghan '80s are back
How to Lose in Afghanistan
US in Afghanistan proposes revamped strategy
US 'needs fresh Afghan strategy'
US looks to Vietnam for Afghan tips
Lessons from Vietnam on Afghanistan
Afghan Pres. Skips Country's 1st TV Debate
A proud moment for Afghanistan
Rival to Karzai Gains Strength in Afghan Presidential Election
Afghan presidential candidate withdraws in Karzai's favor
America and international law
Hamid Karzai pulls out of historic TV debate just hours before broadcast
Karzai says no to first Afghanpresidential debate
Afghan election: Can Karzai's rivals close the gap?
Karzai opponents hope to beat him in second round
Afghanistan's Election Challenges
For Karzai, Stumbles On Road To Election
Pentagon Seeks to Overhaul Prisons in Afghanistan
Cruel human toll of fight to win Afghan peace
Karzai’s gimmick
Well-known traffickers set free ahead of election
US president sets Afghan target
U.S. Inaction Seen After Taliban P.O.W.’s Died
Why the Pentagon Axed Its Afghanistan Warlord
Earn our trust or go, Afghans tell GIs
The Irresistible Illusion
Running Out Of Options, Afghans Pay For an Exit
We've lost sight of our goal in Afghanistan
$2,000 for a dead Afghan Child, $100,000 for Any American Who Died Killing it
The strategy is sound – but success is not assured
Operation in Taliban hotbed a test for revamped U.S. strategy
Covering Crucial Afghanistan Operation
Pentagon Seeks to Overhaul Prisons in Afghanistan
Echoes of Vietnam
A Response To General Dostum
Obama orders probe of killings in Afghanistan
Obama admin: No grounds to probe Afghan war crimes
US president sets Afghan target
U.S. Inaction Seen After Taliban P.O.W.’s Died
Afghanistan's Election Challenges
The Irresistible Illusion
Earn our trust or go, Afghans tell GIs
Running Out Of Options, Afghans Pay For an Exit

We've lost sight of our goal in Afghanistan

The strategy is sound – but success is not assured
Stakes High in Afghanistan Ahead of August Elections
$2,000 for a dead Afghan Child, $100,000 for Any American Who Died Killing it
Ex-detainees allege Bagram abuse
Petraeus Is a Failure -- Why Do We Pretend He's Been a Success?
Fierce Battles and High Casualties on the Frontlines of Afghanistan
End the Illegal, Immoral and Wasted War in Afghanistan, says BNP Defence Spokesman
Outside View: Four revolutions
Pakistan's Plans for New Fight Stir Concern
France: liberty, equality, and fraternity – but no burqas
 

 

 

 

 

Echoes of Vietnam

Even the Coalition commanders in Afghanistan wonder if they can win the war
Will history repeat itself in Afghanistan?

British military intervention in Afghanistan has a chequered history, making it easy to conclude that British forces will fail again


 


Afghanistan: The Metamorphosis  
By: Bruce G. Richardson      

In our time, political speech and writing are, largely the defense of the indefensible…George Orwell

The 1980 Summer Olympics boycott was a part of a range of active measures initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The 1979 Soviet invasion spurred U.S. President Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20, 1980 “that the U.S. would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.” The U.S. would be joined by a number of countries in their solidarity with Afghanistan to include: Japan, West Germany, the Philippines, Argentina and Canada. But covert measures taken against the U.S.S.R. by the U.S. had actually begun earlier. On July 3, 1979, six-months prior to the Soviet incursion, President Jimmy Carter signed a “Presidential Finding” following the advice of his National Security Advisor, Zbignew Brzezinski, to begin covert supplies: arms, the recruitment of Jihadists from Middle East countries, finance, media, and diplomatic support and actionable-intelligence to the Afghans to “give the U.S.S.R. its own Vietnam.”

But who could have imagined that some thirty-one years later that the U.S. and Russia, as allies, would have joined forces to devastate Afghanistan?  Presently, the U.S. and Russia are engaged in bombing Afghanistan and troops from both countries are actively fighting alongside the Northern Alliance against the Taliban.

While Russia, in violation of international law, has disguised its troops fighting in support of the Northern Alliance. Originating from the 201st Division based in Tajikistan, Russian soldiers are outfitted in the attire of the Northern Alliance while their aircraft presently conduct bombing missions against fixed Taliban positions and operate in unmarked aircraft… again in support of the Northern Alliance, there can be no doubt therefore of their active and direct combat support role for the Northern Alliance. (1)

In a parochial twist of irony, the U.S. justification for waging war in Afghanistan against those it supported during the Cold War was to eradicate alleged al-Qaeda training facilities and to capture or kill Osama bin Laden, the West’s alleged mastermind behind 9/11. Russia, for its part, cites the existence of Chechen terrorists among the ranks of the Taliban and a latent fear that Taliban-style fundamentalism will be exported to infect separatist movements in the Central Asian Republics. Both have gratuitously played the “international terrorist” card or label as license for unending war.

This day, however, it is common knowledge and or conventional wisdom that cited justifications were, and are… fabrications, premeditated disinformation, innuendo and parochial propaganda made possible by a compliant media.  The alleged al-Qaeda training camps were discovered to be the camps of those resisting the U.S.-led invasion and occupation. Many observers find the allegation that Osama bin Laden masterminded the 9/11 attacks to be both unsubstantiated and ludicrous, and that it is currently common knowledge that the U.S. squandered a number of opportunities to capture Osama bin Laden as he lay in a hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and while there visited by CIA officers on numerous occasions. Though unreported by the mainstream media, in addition, Taliban made numerous attempts to remand Osama bin Laden to U.S officials in Pakistan but were dismissed at each and every turn. Russia’s stated justifications were also found lacking in substance, historical context and thus corroboration as well. History affirms Russia’s brutal colonization policies in Muslim Central Asia which represent but a mirror-image of their past and current position and policies on Afghanistan. (1, 3, 5, 7)

Additionally, according to Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary Niaz Naik, American officials warned during the summer of 2001 that “we will attack Afghanistan before the snow flies in October,” months prior to 9/11.
February 2001: When a Taliban emissary arrived in Washington with presents for the new Chief Executive… The talks were less than…cordial, and at one point during the deliberations a U.S. Representative told Sayed Hashemi, Taliban emissary, “either you accept our carpet of gold or we will bury you under a carpet of bombs.” The threat was issued to resuscitate failing negotiations mandating that an American concern (UNOCAL) would be successful in winning the contract for the proposed Trans-Afghan (TAP) Pipeline. (2, 7)

Over time, U.S. rational for attacking Afghanistan has been thoroughly discredited by a variety of academics, authors, human rights activists, investigative journalists, and the memoirs of retired intelligence personnel. The adage, ‘the enemy of my enemy is my friend’ has therefore become U.S./Russia policy in Afghanistan. Russia is the Taliban’s enemy and presently America’s friend in what can only be construed as a convoluted and warped twist of irony and betrayal. For Russia, America as an enemy of the Taliban has emerged as a new-found friend.

Veteran combat journalists Robert Pelton and Carlotta Gall, both with extensive Afghanistan and Chechnya experience ventured to Afghanistan in search of Chechen fighters and came away empty handed.  Regarding U.S. and Russian claims of Afghanistan being the “hub of international terrorism,” David Koltz, Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst had this to say:

There are reasons to be wary of the newly developed relationship between the Putin and Bush Administration and the tactical importance of Russia’s help for the administration’s war in Afghanistan has led to Bush to soft-peddle any criticism of the brutal Russian military tactics in Chechnya. This reinforces in presence that American criticism of “evil” in the world depends strongly on context…that is, or whether the perpetrator is a government that the U.S. desires to befriend or to oppose. Even worse, implicit American acceptance of Russia’s brutality in Muslim Chechnya lends support to the charge that the U.S. is leading a war against Islam. (3)   
This acceptance of Russia’s stance regards Chechnya by the Obama Administration has led to a trade-off, with Russia to actively deploy its military in cadence with and support of U.S. anti-Taliban operations in Afghanistan and consigning a multi-billion arms deal underwritten by both the U.K. and the U.S. to the Northern Alliance in exchange for America’s posting of Chechen Resistance members to their list of terrorists and blocking foreign aid. (4)
Much of the intelligence citing the presence of Chechen fighters is based on statements by Northern Alliance commanders who obviously benefit from increased military pressure on the Taliban by combined U.S. and Russian forces. Muhammad Qasim Fahim, for example, regularly comments on the existence of Chechens in the ranks of the Taliban. (5)

While overlooked by most Americans, the continual bloodshed in Afghanistan and Chechnya is widely followed in the Muslim World.   The present lack of concern on the part of the U.S. and Russia for the plight of the Muslims in Afghanistan and Chechnya feed into claims that America and Russia are engaged in a joint crusade against Muslims.

December 2011, marks the 10-year anniversary of the massacre of four or more thousands of Taliban prisoners in Dasht-i-Leili by Rashid Dostum’s Uzbek militia. To mark the event, Physicians for Human Rights have petitioned President Obama to investigate this atrocity. Two years ago, President Obama pledged to “collect the facts and make a decision as to how to approach it” yet no investigation thus far has been forthcoming. Dostum, it must be understood, is an ally of the U.S.-led war against the Taliban… and as have many before, been immunized against prosecution for war crimes. (6)

This day, we note that the U.S. underwrites genocide in both Chechnya and Afghanistan based on fabrications and blatant propaganda, and have joined forces with the Northern Alliance, an assortment of war criminals, pro-Russia collaborators and drug traffickers, who are being presently being groomed by the U.S. as heir-apparent to head up the next government. As they prosecute their so-called “war on terror” they have committed “crimes against peace,” are cited for using weapons of mass destruction such as white phosphorous, unmanned drones, depleted uranium and conducting massive air bombardment proximate to densely populated areas, all serious breaches and or excesses in violation of numerous international statutes and treaties for human rights. The presence of disguised Russian military forces is also in violation of international law as well.  In short, the combined U.S./Russia assault on the tiny Afghan and Chechen populations are a moral and unlawful abomination.  Those whom America once supported against Soviet aggression are today… the victims of joint U.S. and Russian aggression. (7)
Notes:

  1. ‘Shattering the al-Qaeda Myth’, (part 1), Chechnya Weekly, 4.35, Jamestown Foundation Monitor, 2/10/03
  2. ‘Western Leaders Re-Evaluate Their Stance on the Chechen War’, Jamestown Foundation Monitor, 10/27/01
  3. ‘Putin and Bush Below the Surface’, Institute for Public Accuracy, 11/13/01
  4. Ibid.
  5. ‘America’s Hunt for Chechens in Afghanistan’, AFP, Chris Otton, 3/22/11
  6. ‘Restrain the Northern Alliance’, The World at War, Frederick Starr, 10/24/01
  7. Afghanistan, a Search for Truth, Bruce G. Richardson, 2009, p.187     

 

 

 

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