Any member of a Central Asian people found chiefly in Uzbekistan,
but also in other parts of Central Asia and in Afghanistan. The Uzbeks
speak either of two dialects of Uzbek, a Turkic language of the Altaic
family of languages. More than 16 million Uzbeks live in Uzbekistan,
2,000,000 in Afghanistan, 1,380,000 in Tajikistan, 570,000 in Kyrgyzstan,
and smaller numbers in Kazakstan, Turkmenistan, and Sinkiang in China.
The Uzbek designation is thought to refer to Öz Beg (Uzbek), the
Mongol khan under whom the Golden Horde attained its greatest power.
The Uzbeks grew out of a mingling of ancient, settled Iranian populations
with a variety of nomadic Mongol or Turkic tribes that invaded the
region between the 11th and the 15th century. The former were ethnically
similar to the Tajiks, and the latter included Kipchaks, Karluks,
and Turks of Samarkand (relatively more Mongolized groups). A third
element was added with the invasion of Mongol nomadic tribes under
the leadership of Muhammad Shaybani Khan in
the early 16th century.
The great majority of Uzbeks are Sunnite Muslims of the Hanafi
rite, a group noted for the acceptance of personal opinion (ra`y)
in the absence of Muslim precedent. The Uzbeks, especially the urban
Uzbeks, are considered to be the most religious Muslims of Central
Asia; early marriages for young girls, bride-price, and religious
marriages and burials are among the traditions still practiced.
The Uzbeks are the least Russified of those Turkic peoples formerly
ruled by the Soviet Union, and virtually all still claim Uzbek as
their first language.
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